Handbook on Countering Russian and Chinese Interference in Europe

Analysis of the texts of annual intelligence reports has proven what the European Values Center for Security Policy has been claiming for years. The hostile influence operations are not a random occurrence, nor are they a phenomenon that concerns a few countries only. In fact, our research has uncovered a broad consensus among the intelligence agencies in terms of existing tactics and tools applied by Russia and China.  In other words, our long-held stance has now been backed by “hard data” i.e. texts of intelligence agencies. Report available in PDF.